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German socialist, co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacus League and the German Communist Party.

Liebknecht was a member of the Second International (1899‒1914) and founder of the Socialist Youth International. He was elected to the Reichstag in 1912 as a member of the left wing of the Social Democratic Party. He opposed the Party's policies with regard to World War I, and late in 1914, with Rosa Luxemburg and others, founded the Spartacus League (Spartacist Union). Imprisoned from 1916 to October 1918, Liebknecht resumed his activities, aimed at destabilizing Germany and bringing about revolution. It was Liebknecht who, on November 9, 1918, two hours after the proclamation of the Republic before the Reichstag by Philipp Scheidemann, himself proclaimed a "Free Socialist Republic."

He took part in the Spartacist uprising in Berlin in January 1919, which was crushed by remnants of the German imperial army and the Freikorps. He and Luxemburg were captured on January 15, tortured and killed.


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  • OJ 10/1, [78] Handwritten letter from Dahms to Schenker, dated August 23, 1923

    Dahms has received Tonwille 4 but not yet examined it. — Has deferred work on his Haydn book because of financial problems over Musik des Südens and poor take-up of subscriptions. — Debates whether to attend the Leipzig musicology conference. — Comments on German politics as the occupation of the Ruhr unfolds, and compares German attitudes with Italian.