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Czech statesman, sociologist, philosopher; founder and first president of Czechoslovakia.

The idea of a new state comprising a union of Czech and Slovak peoples, for which Masaryk had gathered support during the latter part of World War I, was endorsed by the Allies in summer 1918. Under the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye of September 1918, the independence of Czechoslovakia was recognized; on October 28, 1918, the Czech National Council in Prague proclaimed an independent republic; in November, the Allies recognized Masaryk as head of the Provisional Czechoslovak government; on April 18, 1920, parliamentary elections took place, and Masaryk was then elected President of the Czechoslovak Republic by the two houses of parliament. He was re-elected in 1927 and 1934 (despite a constitutional limit of two terms), and held office until December 14, 1935.


  • Wikipedia ("Masaryk"; "Czechoslovakia"; "Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920")


  • Marko Deisinger

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  • DLA 69.930/10 Handwritten letter from Schenker to Halm, dated September 25, 1922

    Acknowledges OJ 11/35, 20 and composition; expects to be able to comment on Halm's Klavierübung in Tonwille 4; reports Leipzig University's decision not to appoint him; speculates on the impact of Kontrapunkt 2 and Der freie Satz; public difficulty in accepting Urgesetze. — Aristide Briand: The importance of being well-read on a topic before commenting in public: Schoenberg and Reger; newspapers. — Maximilian Harden: although faithful to Schenker, Harden had not mastered the topics on which he wrote. — National Govenment: Schenker's publishing plans, including "The Future of Humanity": man's anthropomorphic thinking is a delusion, he needs to adapt to nature, to return to a primitive state, to abandon "development" and "progress" and return to primordial laws; inferior man wants to "govern" (bowel wants to become brain); Schenker deplores "artifice" (French) as against nature (German). — Things French: praises German superiority over French in its joy of work. — Higher Plane: the German should not abase himself before the Frenchman.